Simplifying Concepts

Essence of Life is in Simplicity

OOPS Simplified

OOPS (Object Oriented Programming) Meaning SIMPLIFIED:

We tend to consider the three Conjoined Letters “OOP” as our Biggest Difficulty in programming. But simplifying the difficulty I wanna add the point that “OOP” is actually brought into the picture as a simple solution to the complex problems existing before its introduction.So,lets SIMPLIFY OOPS!!!

 OOPS-(Object Oriented programming)

What it is???  ……. It is a method/process in simpler terms way of Programming and Language Design.

What it means???……..To design  a s/w so that the various types of data it manipulates are combined together with their relevant operations.

Still Simplifying: Object can be assumed as a bundle, where it consists of Behavior (CODE) and state(DATA)..

The principle is to separate the things that change from the things that stay the same; often, a change to some data structure requires a corresponding change to the code that operates on that data, or vice versa. This separation into coherent objects provides a more stable foundation for a software system’s design. The intent is to make large software projects easier to manage, thus improving quality and reducing the number of failed projects.

Another Importance of OOP:

To create more generic s/w as they might be more usable or rather Reusable between different software projects.(GENERICISM can be achieved by making pluggable components)

“Hoping this article to be useful, do comment/review below”

L&T Interview Experiences

L&T Interview Experiences / L&T Placement Experiences

L&T interview Experiences

L&T interview Experiences


Contributed By: Shreyas K

Interview experience in L&t was superb, After being rejected by companies like TCS, IGATE, TECHM, my confidence level had been totally drained out. But as i started clearing different levels my confidence started building up. The different levels were as follows
Round 1: Technical Aptitude (they had about 4 sets (A,B,C,D))
Each set had three section each of 20 questions therefore a total of 60 questions to be solved in 60 minutes.
The set which i got, had distribution like, quants, logical reasoning and verbal.
I was pleased to hear when my name was announced among the list of students who had cleared the aptitude.

Round 2: Group Discussion
There were total 10 students in each room for group discussion. There were only two panelist from l&t and they gave us two topics from which we had to choose one. This round was quite easy and if you put forth few valid points, u can easily clear the round. Same was my case. I cleared it with ease and proceeded for next round

Round 3: Technical Interview
The Interviewer asked questions based on my mini project which i had mentioned in the resume. As i explained it flawlessly, i got cleared from that round too.

Round 4: HR Interview
Here basic questions like,describe about yourself, how are u feeling, will u be able to relocate are asked. I answered them perfectly.
And after few days was finally happy to see that i was one of those few students who got selected for L&T.

I Hope This Helps You !!
Best of luck !! Have Funn!


Contributed By: Rajat Acharya

In l&t InfoTech interview process proceeds in this fashion 1st is technical round and 2nd one is HR round. In Technical round Interviewer asked me about my mini project and she also asked about the working of my final year project.Then she asked me about oops concept and its implementation .I got selected in that round. If you are selected in Technical round means you are through. Last HR round is just a formality. In HR round she asked me about my family, n some questions like have you any problem to relocate, are you fine with travelling. Everyone who sits for placement of any company should first have knowledge about the company’s background, what are the frequent technical questions asked by that company in other college or you can ask your seniors who are placed in that company . The important thing during interview is confidence. “Everything happens for a good sake” even though u get rejected from any of the company’s placement process please don’t lose confidence.


Contributed By: Anonymous

L&T Recruitment Process
The L&T InfoTech recruitment is similar to any other placement process; it includes the aptitude test, group discussion, passage writing, and technical interview and HR interview.The aptitude test is a written OMR sheet test including Quant, Logical and Verbal Questions. The questions are more or less similar to the questions present in aptitude books such as RS Agarwal.

Group discussion is a very well organized selection process in L&T InfoTech where candidates are judged on the basis of their speaking skills, thought process, perspective and your overall lookout to the topic. During a GD you may be even asked to speak for or against the topic so be prepared with your thoughts and jot down points both for and against. You can take help or support someone else with their points but make sure you say something from your side as well.

Passage writing is not for elimination but still it tests your writing skills and your capacity to convey your thoughts on paper. In any campus placement never take any task lightly, after all everything is there for a cause, if not for elimination then just to understand how careless you are for things that are not important or you are been told as if it is not important, if you know what I mean.

Technical interview will test all your fundamentals of programming. Be confident while answering and gather enough knowledge about Object oriented programming. If you have mentioned your interest in networking in your resume then be prepared for questions on OSI Layers, routing etc. You might be asked to write a program on any of the very basic concepts like Fibonacci series, Armstrong number, sorting etc.

HR Interview will be your final round, “Tell me something about yourself “make no mistake in this one. The final round is to check your accountability to your work. You must have some knowledge about the company to be on the safer side. It is good to discuss about your achievements, volunteering and participation in extracurricular activities.

A great person has said “Company does not need intelligent people, it needs good people”, so dear aspirant there is always a room at the top, have loyalty and honesty within you, you will find a place where you are supposed to be. All the Best.

Thankyou guyz for supporting and providing the invaluable source of Information and experience. These are the placement and interview experiences of L&T campus recruitment batch-2015. All of these experiences are genuine and this has been only possible through the support of the contributors.

Guys if anyone wishes to provide their L&T interview experiences can do so by clicking the following
Click here. This would be of great help.

Anyone wanting to use or copy these experiences in their websites or forums need to take prior permission from the conceptsimplified.Failing to adhere would lead to legal contempt.

Difference between internet intranet and extranet

Difference between internet intranet and extranet
Compare internet, intranet and extranet.

Differentiate/Compare/ Difference between internet intranet and extranet


Internet, Intranet & Extranet




It is a Global system of interconnected computer network.

It is a Private network specific to an organisation.

It is a Private network that uses public network to share information with suppliers and vendors.

Not regulated by any authority.

It is regulated by an organization.

It is regulated by multiple organization.

Thus content in the network is accessible to everyone connected.

Thus content in the network is accessible only to members of organization.

The content in the network is accessible to members of organization & external members with access to network.

It is largest in terms of number of connected devices.

It is small network with minimal number of connected devices.

The number of devices connected is comparable with Intranet.

It is owned by no one.

It is owned by single organization.

It is owned by single/multiple organization.

It is means of sharing information throughout the world.

It is means of sharing sensitive information throughout organization.

It is means of sharing information between members and external members.

Security is dependent of the user of device connected to network.

Security is enforced via a firewall.

Security is enforced via a firewall that separates internet & extranet.

Example: What we are normally using is internet.

Example: TCS using internal network for its business operations.

Example: HP and Intel using network for business related operations.

Users can access Internet anonymously.

Users should have valid username/password to access Intranet.

Users should have valid username/password to access Extranet.

Internet is unregulated and uncensored.

But Intranet is regulated by the organization policies.

Extranet is also regulated by contractual agreements between organizations.

Contributed by: Abishek Ganesh

Note: The above differences have been derived through a proper understanding. So please share the link of this webpage as “sharing is a way of spreading knowledge”. But, please do not copy & paste it in other Website or Forums.

Hey guys we are eager to hear from you, about your views and your thoughts. Let us know how much you like the differences mentioned above. Please give your comments and if possible share because “Sharing is Caring”.

TCS Interview Experiences

TCS Interview Experiences/ TCS Interview Experience


Contributed By: Aditya Rao

The interviewers i had were quite friendly. More importantly, they knew what they were doing and could very well gauge how the person in front of them was. They looked at marksheets and asked questions based on the subjects in which marks were comparatively higher. They also had very clear questions on projects undertaken. All the questions tested not only concepts but also attitude towards learning. I would suggest being as frank as you can in front of them. They can see through visages as they are very experienced in interviews. The next would be to have a clear understanding about the subjects in which you scored comparatively higher marks, as also about the why’s and how’s of your project.


Contributed By: Anuja Panicker

The experience was a very pleasant one.For tips: The most important is that you should be confident in the way you speak and present yourself. Know yourself and answer truthfully. These are people who can sniff a lie when it’s being said. Be true and honest, be prepared with technical questions ( basics) and show eagerness to learn. Know about the company and be updated.
They want young, enthusiastic and smart learners who can be moulded to fit their company.


Contributed By: Pooja V

TCS is indeed a great experience. The rounds are quite simple as compared to the hype created for it. There were 3 rounds : Online Aptitude test,Technical interview,HR interview.

For Aptitude : Refer TCS mock test on their site(The actual test was simple as compared to that),Refer previous years apti questions from various online sites as most of the questions were repeated.The questions mainly consist of quants and logic. Time management is important and as every question has negative marking it is advisable to attempt what you are sure of.

Next up was,
Technical and management interview :
One tip :Be confident and smile throughout! The moment you show stress,you lose.

Technical Questions:
Basic java programs, fav subject,how usb port works,data transportation,B.e project based, etc.

Management Questions :
Why TCS,Are you ready to work in any part of the world,hobbies,describe yourself,why are you in IT,What would you do with your first salary,etc.

HR Interview:
Describe your projects in simple language,hobbies,Will you work anywhere across the globe,few basic questions about TCS,How ambitious are you,life goals,best achievement,etc.

Final Word :
Stay Calm,believe in yourself and answer the best you can.


Contributed By: Anonymous

Excellent experience , it was my first career interview of life and to clear it certainly brings a huge smile on the face. My tips for juniors will be :-
For Technical
Be sure with the language you written in resume . Be 90% sure with that language. You can or will be asked to write programs. Be very sure about

  • basic differences of java vs c++
  • Interpretation vs compilation

and in HR :- if you are in some organizing committee then be prepared with questions like
what was your role, what problems you faced how you overcame etc. In the end just keep 2 things in mind body language and confidence .


Contributed By: Uma Mounika Karukonda

Questions based on basics of principles of communication were asked. I was asked to speak about myself bringing out my best qualities. Later I was questioned were I would comfortable working in any city away from Mumbai with not so flexible working hours.

I would suggest to brush through whatever basics that have been taught and confidence is the key.


Contributed By: Madhura Milind Nagaonkar

Technical interview was fully based on programming and real time applications.
Few questions were based on BE project.
confidence is important to crack HR round.


Contributed By: Maximus

1. Be confident .
2. Being confident shudnt be confused with being arrogant .
3. Try to be as humble as possible and don’t mess up.
4. If u don’t know then don’t try and lie ur way out of it if u can’t .
5. If u do well and good u will get selected :p

Thankyou guyz for supporting and providing the invaluable source of Information and experience. These are the placement and interview experiences of TCS campus recruitment batch-2015. All of these experiences are genuine and this has been only possible through the support of the contributors.

Guy if anyone wishes to provide their TCS interview experiences can do so by clicking the following link
Click here.This would be of great help.

Anyone wanting to use or copy these experiences in their websites or forums need to take prior permission from the conceptsimplified.Failing to adhere would lead to legal contempt.

Association Rule Mining

Association Rule Mining

Apriori Algorithm

Hi guys welcome back, in this post I would be covering about Apriori algorithm’ s association rules, its disadvantages and more specifically its limitations. First of all I would deal with pseudo code of Apriori algorithm.

Pseudo Code: (Ignore this if you get confused the steps in previous post are sufficient)
Ck: Candidate itemset of size k.
Lk: Frequent itemset of size k.
L1= {contains frequent items}
For (k=1; Lk! = null; k++)

    1. Ck+1 = candidates generated from Lk (through join operation);
    2. For each transaction t(say T100, T200, ..) in database increment the count of all candidates in Ck+1 that are contained in t;
    3. Lk+1= candidates in Ck+1 with min_support;

Return Union (Lk);

What is Association rule?
Representation: computer ➞ Antivirus software
Association depicts whether purchase of computer is associated with antivirus software. That is, Is Antivirus software bought frequently provided customer buys computer? This is what association is.

Association rule thus describes whether a particular item on Right hand side of the arrow is bought frequently with item on left hand side. Association uses the concept of confidence.Confidence is the minimum accepted percentage that depicts whether particular item is frequently purchased with other item. So if an association has confidence >= min_confidence specified then it is said to be strong association. (Again don’t worry this would be clearer in the below example)

Confidence = support_count(l)/support_count(s)

So from the previous post “Click here” we got Lk = {(I1, I2, I3), (I1, I2, I5)}

Generating Association Rules:

For each frequent itemset L (L refers to individual elements of Lk i.e. (I1, I2, I5) or (I1, I2, I5)) generate all non empty subsets of L.
s’ refers to item on left hand side and is usually subset of L.

General Association rule is depicted by S ➞ (L-S)

Considering L= (I1, I2, I5)
Subsets possible = ({I1}, {I2}, {I5}, {I1, I2}, {I2, I5}, {I1, I5})

When s= {I1} association rule is depicted by {I1} ➞ {I2^I5} that is from S ➞ (L-S)
Confidence=support_count(L)/support_count(s) = 2/6 =33.33% < 50% Support_count(I1,I2,I5)=2 Support_count(I1)=6 from previous post-Apriori Algorithm example.
So the above association {I1} ➞ {I2^I5} is not strong association.

Similarly calculate confidence for {I2} i.e. s= {I2}
{I2} ➞ {I1^I5} confidence=support_count(I1, I2, I5)/support_count(I2)= 2/7 =28.5% < 50% So again this is not a strong association {I5} ➞ {I1 ^ I2} confidence=2/2 =100% so greater than 50%
So above association is a strong association.

{I1 ^ I2} ➞ {I5} confidence=support_count(I1, I2, I5)/support_count(I1,I2)=2/4 =50%
{I1 ^ I5} ➞ {I2} confidence=2/2 =100% >50% hence strong association.
{I2 ^ I5} ➞ {I1} confidence=2/2=100% >50% hence strong association.

Now follow the same procedure to calculate association rule mining for L= {I1, I2, I3} in the similar way.

Limitations of Apriori Algorithm
1. It involves generation of candidate set of size k. It is not feasible to generate huge candidate set of k for large number of items and that too for large number of transactions/ records.
2. Further the database needs to be repeatedly scanned and checked for a large set of candidates by pattern matching which is again a performance issue in case of large number of transactions.

This has led to creation and usage of new algorithm for frequent item mining known as Frequent pattern growth (FP growth method)

Note:That’s it, for any doubts and queries you can post in the comment section below. Keep visiting and sharing this page because “Sharing is caring”.

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